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WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
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A major part of the preparations in this group are combined preparations. Preparations containing e.g. analgesics and antispasmodics could be classified either in this group or in N02 - Analgesics. Combinations of psycholeptics and antispasmodics could be classified in A03 or in N05 - Psycholeptics etc. The main indication for the use of the combination will, together with the relative effect of the active components, decide the classification. In the treatment of pain caused by spasms, the spasmolytic component must be judged as more important than the analgesic component. Accordingly, analgesic/antispasmodic combinations should be classified in A03 if the main effect of the preparation is the antispasmodic action.
Combined preparations are classified in:

A03C - Antispasmodics in combination with psycholeptics
A03D - Antispasmodics in combination with analgesics
A03E - Antispasmodics and anticholinergics in combination with other drugs

Antispasmodics, which are used specifically in the urogenital tractus, are classified in G04BD - Drugs for urinary frequency and incontinence.

The DDD for the substances is usually equal for different routes of administration (oral, parenteral or rectal) of the same compound and is based on the oral dose.


Drugs for constipation are classified in A06.

Semisynthetic derivatives such as butylscopolamine, are classified in A03B - Belladonna and derivatives, plain.

A03AA Synthetic anticholinergics, esters with tertiary amino group
A03AB Synthetic anticholinergics, quaternary ammonium compounds

Plain preparations for systemic use containing glycopyrronium bromide are classified in this group. Preparations containing glycopyrronium in combination with neostigmine are classified in N07AA51. Trospium see G04BD and A03DA.

Pipenzolate in combination with silicones is classified in A03AB14.

The parenteral DDD for glycopyrronium bromide is based on the use as premedication for anesthetic procedures.

A03AC Synthetic antispasmodics, amides with tertiary amines
A03AD Papaverine and derivatives

Combinations with sterculia are classified here. Systemic combinations containing papaverine are classified at the plain level for papaverine.
Papaverine used for treatment of erectil dysfunction, see G04BE.

A03AE Serotonin receptor antagonists
A03AX Other drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders

This group comprises drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders, which cannot be classified in the preceding groups.

Combinations of silicones and antispasmodics are classified in A03AX13 if the main indication is flatulence.
Combinations of silicones and antacids are classified in A02AF.

Combinations of silicones and antipropulsives are classified in A07DA.

Trimethylphloroglucinol and combinations with trimethylphloroglucinol are allowed at the 5th level A03AX12 - phloroglucinol.

Dimeticone is classified in A03AX13 - silicones

Last updated: 2017-12-20